Names in bold are current or past members of the Hopkins Lab.


Button, S.T. G, Hallagan, J.J., Jachowski, C.M.B. G, Case, B.F., Groffen, J., Hopkins, W.A. 2020.  Weathering the storm: Improving the availability and stability of artificial shelters for hellbender salamanders. River Research and Applications.

Button, S.T. G, Jachowski, C.M.B. G, Case, B.F., Groffen, J., Hopkins, W.A. 2020. The Influence of Multiscale Habitat Variables and Population Density on Artificial Shelter Use by Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetologica.

Hope, SF G, DuRant, SE, Angelier, F, Hallagan, JJ, Moore, IT, Parenteau, C, Kennamer, RA, Hopkins, WA. 2020. Prolactin is related to incubation constancy and egg temperature following a disturbance in a precocial bird.  General and Comparative Endocrinology, 295, 113489.

Grimaudo, AT U, Hope, SF G, DuRant, SE, Kennamer, RA, Hallagan, JJ, Hopkins, WA. 2020. Ambient temperature and female body condition are related to night incubation behavior in wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Journal of Avian Biology 51(5)

Jachowski, CMB G, Ross, BE, Hopkins, WA. 2020. Evaluating artificial shelter arrays as a minimally invasive monitoring tool for the hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis Endangered Species Research 41,167-181. DOI: 10.3354/esr01014

Hope, SF G, Kennamer, RA, Grimaudo, AT U, Hallagan, JJ, Hopkins WA. 2020. Incubation temperature affects duckling body size and food consumption despite no effect on associated feeding behaviors. Integrative Organismal Biology 2(1), obaa003.

Hopkins, WA, DuRant, SE, Beck, ML P, Ray, WK, Helm, RF, Romero LM. 2020. Cortisol is the predominant glucocorticoid in the giant paedomorphic hellbender salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) General and Comparative Endocrinology 285, 113267.


Beck, M.L. P, Hopkins, W.A., 2019. The relationship between plumage coloration and aggression in female tree swallows Journal of Avian Biology 50(11)

Connock, J.U, Case, B.G, Button, S.G, Groffen, J., Galligan, T.M.P, and Hopkins, W.A. 2019. Factors influencing in-situ detection of pit-tagged hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) occupying artificial shelters using a submersible antennae. Herpetological Conservation and Biology. 14 (2), 429-437.

Hope, S.F., Kennamer, R.A., van Montfrans, S.G., and Hopkins, W.A. 2019. Incubation temperature and social context affect nest exodus performance of precocial ducklings. Behavioral Ecology 30: 518-527. doi:10.1093/beheco/ary192.



Hope, S.F., Beunaventura, C., Husain, Z., DuRant, S.E., Kennamer, R.E., Hopkins, W.A., and Thompson, C.K. 2018. Effects of incubation temperature on thyroid hormone and corticosterone related gene expression in the developing brain of a precocial bird. Frontiers in Physiology. INVITED FOR SPECIAL ISSUE: – developmental programing of vertebrate health and disease.

Whitmore, K.M., Schoenholtz, S.H., Soucek, D.J., Hopkins, W.A., and Zipper C.E. 2018. Selenium dynamics in headwater streams of the central Appalachian coalfield. Environ Toxicol Chem, 37(10), 2714-2726. doi:10.1002/etc.4245

Eagles-Smith, C.A., E. K. Silbergeld, N. Basu, P. Bustamante, F. Diaz-Barriga, W.A. Hopkins, K.A. Kidd, J.F. Nyland. 2018. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change. Ambio. 47(2),170-197. INVITED REVIEW AND INTERNATIONAL PLENARY PANEL.

Jachowski, C.M.B., and W.A. Hopkins. 2018. Demography of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, along a land use gradient: Implications for monitoring and conservation of long-lived species. Biological Conservation. 220, 215-227.

Thompson, M.M., B.H. Coe, R.M. Andrews, D.A. Cristol, D.A. Crossley II, and W.A. Hopkins. 2018. Agricultural land use creates evolutionary traps for nesting turtles and is exacerbated by mercury pollution. Journal of Experimental Zoology: Part A. INVITED FOR SPECIAL ISSUE: Reptile Developmental Plasticity. 329(4-5), 230-243.

Thompson M.M., B.H. Coe, R.M.Andrews, D.F.Stauffer, D.A.Cristol, D.A.Crossley II, W.A. Hopkins. 2018. Major global changes interact to cause male-biased sex ratios in a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination. Biological Conservation.

S.F. Hope, S.E. DuRant, J.J. Hallagan, M.L. Beck, R.A. Kennamer, W.A. Hopkins. 2018. Free-moving artificial eggs containing temperature loggers reveal remarkable within-clutch variance in incubation temperature. Journal of Avian Biology.


Eagles-Smith, C.A., Silbergeld, E.K., Basu, N., Bustamante, P., Diaz-Barriga, F., Hopkins, W.A., Kidd, K.A., Nyland, J.F. 2017. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change. Ambio. INVITED REVIEW AND INTERNATIONAL PLENARY PANEL

Jachowski, C.M.B., and W. A. Hopkins. 2017. Demography of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, along a land use gradient: Implications for monitoring and conservation of long-lived species. Biological Conservation.

Thompson, M.M., B.H. Coe, R.M. Andrews, D.A. Cristol, D.A. Crossley, W.A. Hopkins. 2017. Adding Insult to Injury: Agricultural land use creates evolutionary traps for nesting turtles and is exacerbated by mercury pollution. Journal of Experimental Zool  INVITED FOR SPECIAL ISSUE: Reptile Developmental Plasticity.

Hope, S.F., R.A. Kennamer, I.T. Moore, W.A. Hopkins. 2017. Incubation temperature influences the personality traits of a young precocial bird. Journal of Experimental Zoology: Part A INVITED FOR SPECIAL ISSUE: Reptile Developmental Plasticity.

Fallon, J.A., Smith, E.P., Schoch, N., Paruk, J. D., Adams, E. A., Evers, D. C., Jodice, P. G.R., Perkins, C., Schulte, S. and Hopkins, W. A. 2017. Hematological indices of injury to lightly oiled birds from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ Toxicol Chem. doi:10.1002/etc.3983. FEATURED AS HIGHLIGHT ARTICLE BY JOURNAL

Chin, S.Y.W.A. Hopkins, D.A Cristol. 2017. Mercury alters initiation and construction of nests by zebra finches, but not incubation or provisioning behaviors.  Ecotoxicology 26:1271-1283.

Handler L., M.S. Painter, B.H. Coe, P.W. Youmans, W.AHopkins, and J.B. Phillips. 2017. High levels of maternally transferred mercury disrupt magnetic responses of snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina). Environ Pollution. 11: 228:19-25.

Thompson, M.T., B.C. Coe, J.D. Congdon, D.F. Stauffer, W.A. Hopkins. 2017. Nesting ecology and habitat use of Chelydra serpentina in an area modified by agricultural and industrial activity. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 12:292-306.

Beck, M., Thompson, M.T.Hopkins, W. 2017. Repeatability and sources of variation of the bacteria-killing assay in the common snapping turtle. J. Experimental Zool.  327: 293-301. INVITED FOR SPECIAL ISSUE: ECOIMMUNOLOGY: AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH.

Orlofske, S.A., Belden, L.K., and Hopkins, W.A. 2017. Effects of Echinostoma trivolvis metacercariae infection during development and metamorphosis of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 203:40-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2016.08.002.

Van Dyke, J.P, C.M.B. Jachowski, D. Steen P, B. Jackson, and W. A. Hopkins. 2017. Spatial differences in trace element bioaccumulation in turtles exposed to a partially remediated coal fly-ash spill. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 36:201-211.


Hughey, M,  Walke, J., Becker, M.,  Umile, T., Burzynski, E,  Minbiole, K., Iannetta, A., Santiago, C., Hopkins, W.A.,  and Belden, L.  2016.  Short-term exposure to coal combustion waste has little impact on the skin microbiome of adult spring peepers, Pseudacris crucifer. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82(12) 3493-3502.

Durant, S.E.,  Hopkins, W.A., Carter,  A.W., Kirkpatrick, L.T., Navara, K.J., and Hawley, D.M. 2016. Incubation temperature causes skewed sex ratios in a precocial bird. Journal of Experimental Biology 219:1961-1964.

Bodinof Jachowski, C. M., Millspaugh, J. J. and Hopkins, W. A. (2016), Current land use is a poor predictor of hellbender occurrence: why assumptions matter when predicting distributions of data-deficient species. Diversity Distrib., 22: 865–880. doi:10.1111/ddi.12446

Coe, B.H.Drewett, D.V., and Jachowski, C. M.B. *G 2016. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Eastern Hellbender). Terrestrial Movement. Herpetological Review 47(1): 99-­‐100.

Hopkins, W.A., Fallon, J.A.*G, Beck M, Coe BH*G, and Jachowski C.M.B*G. 2016. Haematological and immunological characteristics of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) infected and co-­‐infected with endo-­‐ and ectoparasites. Conservation Physiology. 4: doi:10.1093/conphys/cow002


Hepp, GR, SE DuRant, and WA Hopkins. 2015. Influence of incubation temperature on offspring phenotype and fitness in birds.  In: Nests and Eggs: Incubating New Ideas about Avian Reproduction, D.C. Deeming and S.J. Reynolds (eds).  Oxford University Press.

DuRant, S.E.Hopkins, W.A., Davis, A.K., and Romero, L.M. 2015. Evidence of ectoparasite-induced endocrine disruption in an imperiled giant salamander, the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Journal of Experimental Biology 218:2297-304.

Landler L. Painter, M.S., Youmans, Hopkins, W.A. and Phillips, J.B. 2015. Spontaneous magnetic alignment by yearling snapping turtles: rapid association of radio frequency dependent pattern of magnetic input with novel surroundings. PLOS ONE DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124728.

Beck, M.L., HopkinsW.A. , Jackson, B.P, and Hawley, D.M. 2015. The effects of a remediated fly ash spill and weather conditions on reproductive success and offspring development in tree swallows. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 187:119.

Steen, D.A.Van Dyke, J.U. , Jackson, B.P., and Hopkins, W.A., 2015. Reproduction and hatchling performance in freshwater turtles associated with a remediated coal fly-ash spill. Environmental Research 138: 38 – 48.

Coe, B.H., Beck, M.L.Chin, S.Y.Jachowski, C.B. and Hopkins, W.A., 2015. Local variation in weather conditions influences incubation behavior and temperature in a passerine bird. Journal of Avian Biology 46: 1-10.


Carter, A.W., Hopkins, W.A. Moore, I.T., and DuRant, S.E., 2014. Influence of incubation recess patterns on incubation period and hatchling traits in wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Journal of Avian Biology 45(3) 273-279.

Van Dyke, J.U., Steen, D.A., Jackson, B.P., and Hopkins, W.A., 2014. Maternal transfer and embryonic assimilation of trace elements in freshwater turtles after remediation of a coal fly-ash spill. Environmental Pollution 194:38-49

Hopkins, W.A., Moser, W.E., Garst, D.W., Richardson, D.J., Hammond, C.I. and Lazo-Wasem, E.A., 2014. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of leech (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida): Implications for the health of its imperiled amphibian host (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). ZooKeys 378: 83–101. **COVER PHOTO

Beck M.L., Hopkins, W.A., Hallagan, J.J., Jackson, B.P., and Hawley, D.M., 2014. Exposure to residual concentrations of elements from a remediated coal fly ash spill does not adversely influence stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows. Conservation Physiology 2: doi:10.1093/conphys/cou018.

Steen, D.A., Hopkins, B.C., Van Dyke, J.U., and Hopkins, W.A., 2014. Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States. PLoS ONE 9:e91368.

S. E. DuRantA. W. Carter, R. J. Denver, G. R. Hepp, and W. A. Hopkins. 2014. Are thyroid hormones mediators of incubation temperature-induced phenotypes in birds? Biol Lett 2014 10: 20130950.

Eskew, E.A., B.Todd, W.A.Hopkins.  2014. Extremely low prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in southwest Virginia, USA.  Herpetological Review 45:425-427.


Jachowski, C. M. B. and Hopkins, W.A., 2013. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Eastern Hellbender). Aggregate Behavior. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 292

Van Dyke, J.U., Beck, M.L., Jackson, B.P., and Hopkins, W.A., 2013. Interspecific Differences in Egg Production Affect Egg Trace Element Concentrations after a Coal Fly Ash Spill. Environmental Science & Technology 47: 13763-13771.

Moser, W.E., J.T. Briggler, D.J. Richardson, C.D. Schuette, C.I. Hammond, W.A. Hopkins, and E.A. Lazo-Wasem. 2013. Redescription and Molecular Characterization of Placobdella cryptobranchii (Johnson and Klemm, 1977) (Glossiphoniidae: Hirudinida). ZooKeys 338:1-10.

Adelman, J.S., A.W. CarterW.A. Hopkins, and D.M. Hawley. 2013. Deposition of pathogenic Mycoplasma gallisepticum onto bird feeders: host pathology is more important than temperature-driven increases in food intake. Biology Letters 23 October 2013 vol. 9 no. 5 20130594; 1744-957X.

Van Dyke, J.U., W.A. Hopkins, and B.P. Jackson. 2013. Influence of relative trophic position and carbon source on selenium bioaccumulation in turtles from a coal fly-ash spill site. Environmental Pollution 182:45-52.

Beck, M. L., Hopkins,W.A., and Jackson, B.P. 2013. Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Diet of Tree Swallows: Implications for Trace Element Exposure after Habitat Remediation. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. DOI: 10.1007/s00244-013-9913-5

DuRant, S.E., W.A. Hopkins, A. F. Wilson*, C. M. Stachowiak*, and G.R. Hepp. In Press. Incubation conditions are more important in determining early thermoregulatory ability than post hatch resource conditions in a precocial bird. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology.

Carter, A. W., S.E. DuRant, G.R. Hepp, W.A. HopkinsIn press. Thermal challenge severity differentially influences wound healing in wood duck (Aix sponsa) ducklings. Journal of Experimental Zoology: Part A.

Hopkins, B.C., Chin, S.Y., Willson, J.D., and Hopkins, W.A2013. Like mother, like offspring: Maternal and offspring wound healing correlate in snakes. Journal of Experimental Biology 216:2545-2547.

Hopkins, B.C.Hepner, M.J., and Hopkins, W. A. 2013. Nondestructive techniques for biomonitoring of spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns of mercury bioaccumulation and maternal transfer in turtles. Environmental Pollution 177:164-170.

Hopkins, B.C., Willson, J.D., and Hopkins, W.A. 2013. Mercury exposure is associated with negative effects on turtle reproduction. Environmental Science & Technology 47:2416-2422.

Drewett, D.V.V., Willson J.D., Cristol D.A., Chin S.Y., and Hopkins, W.A. 2013. Inter- and intra-specific variation in mercury bioaccumulation by snakes inhabiting a contaminated river floodplain. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32:1178-1186.

Metts, B., Buhlmann, K., Tuberville, T., Scott, D., Hopkins, W2013. Maternal transfer of contaminants and reduced reproductive success of southern toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste. Environmental Science & Technology 47: 2846-2853.

Melnyk, K., Gelis, R.A., Hopkins, W. A., Vaca, F. and Moore, I.T. 2013. Gray-bellied hawk (Accipiter poliogaster) observed feeding on a tinamou in Yasuni Biospere Reserve, Ecuador. Journal of Raptor Research 47:330-332.

DuRant, S. E., W. A. Hopkins, J. R. Walters, and G. R. Hepp. 2013. Ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications of incubation temperature-dependent phenotypes in birds. Biological Reviews 88:499-509.

Willson, J. D., and W.A. Hopkins. 2013. Evaluating the Effects of Anthropogenic Stressors on Source-Sink Dynamics in Pond-Breeding Amphibians. Conservation Biology 27:595-604.

Fallon, J.A, Fox, L., Hopkins, W.A. 2013. A practical quantification method for Heinz bodies in birds applicable to rapid response field scenarios. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32: 401-405.

DuRant, S. E., Hopkins, W. A., Hepp, G. R. and L. M. Romero. 2013. Energetic constraints and parental care: is corticosterone indicative of energetic costs of incubation in a precocial bird? Hormones and Behavior 63: 385-391.

Hopkins, W.A., Bodinof, C., Budischak, S. , and Perkins, C. 2013. Nondestructive indices of mercury exposure in three species of turtles occupying different trophic niches downstream from a former chloralkali facility. Ecotoxicology 22:22-32.

Orlofske, S.A., Belden, L.K., Hopkins, W.A. 2013. Larval wood frog (Rana [=Lithobates] sylvatica) development and physiology following infection with the trematode parasite, Echinostoma trivolvis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 164:529-536.

Chin, S.Y., J.D. Willson, D.A. Cristol, D.V.V. Drewett, and W.A. Hopkins. 2013. Altered behavior of neonatal northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) exposed to maternally transferred mercury. Environmental Pollution 176:144-150.

Chin, S.Y., J.D. Willson, D.A. Cristol, D.V.V. Drewett, and W.A. Hopkins. 2013. High levels of maternally transferred mercury do not affect reproductive output or embryonic survival of northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32:619-626.


Davis, A.K., W.A. Hopkins. 2013. Widespread trypanosome infections in a population of eastern hellbenders (Chyptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Virginia, USA. Parasitology Research 112:453-456.

Willson, J. D., W. A. HopkinsC. M. Bergeron, and B. D. Todd. 2012Making leaps in amphibian ecotoxicology: translating individual-level effects of environmental contaminants to population viability. Ecological Applications 22(6):1791-1802.

Hawley, D., DuRant, S., Wilson, A., Adelman, J., Hopkins, W. 2012. Additive metabolic costs of thermoregulation and pathogen infection. Functional Ecology 26:701-710.

Wack, C. L., DuRant, S.E., Hopkins, W.A., Lovern, M.B., Feldhoff, R.C., and Woodley, S.K. 2012. Elevated plasma corticosterone increases metabolic rate in a terrestrial salamander. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology-A 161:153-158.

Todd, B., Bergeron, C.M., Hopkins, W.A. 2012. Use of toe clips as a nonlethal index of mercury accumulation and maternal transfer in amphibians. Ecotoxicology 21:882-887.

Bryan, A.L., Hopkins, W.A., Parikh, J.H., Jackson, B.P., Unrine, J.M. 2012. Coal Fly Ash Basins as an Attractive Nuisance to Birds: Parental Provisioning Exposes Nestlings to Harmful Trace Elements. Environmental Pollution 161:170-177.

Metts, B.S., Buhlmann, K.A., Scott, D.E., Tuberville, T.D., Hopkins, W.A. 2012. Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Environmental Pollution 164:211-218.


Todd, B.D., Willson, J.D., Bergeron, C.M., Hopkins, W.A.  2011. Do effects of mercury in larval amphibians persist after metamorphosis? Ecotoxicolgy 21:87-95.

DuRant, S.E., Hopkins, W.A., Wilson, A.F., Hepp, G.R. 2011. Incubation temperature affects the metabolic cost of thermoregulation in a young precocial bird. Functional Ecology 26:416-422.

Salice, C.J., Rowe, C.L., Pechmann, J.H.K. and Hopkins, W.A. 2011. Multiple stressors and complex life cycles: insights from a population‐level assessment of breeding site contamination and terrestrial habitat loss in an amphibian. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30:2874-2882.

Hopkins, W.A., DuRant, S.E. 2011. Innate immunity and stress physiology of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) from two stream reaches with differing habitat quality. General and Comparative Endocrinology 174:107-115.

Todd, B.D., Bergeron, C.M., Hepner, M.J., and Hopkins, W.A. 2011. Aquatic and terrestrial stressors in amphibians: a test of the double jeopardy hypothesis based on maternally and trophically derived contaminants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30:2277-2284.

Wada, W., Bergeron, C.M., McNabb, A.F.M., Todd, B.D., and Hopkins, W.A. 2011. Dietary mercury has no observable effects on thyroid-mediated processes and fitness-related traits in wood frogs. Environmental Science and Technology 45:7915-7922.

DuRant, S. E., Hopkins, W.A, Hawley, D.M., and Hepp, G.R. 2011. Incubation temperature affects multiple measures of immunocompetence in young wood ducks (Aix Sponsa). Biology Letters, 24 August 2011, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0735.

Homyack, J. A., Haas, C.A., Hopkins, W.A. 2011. Energetics of surface-active terrestrial salamanders in experimentally harvested forest. The Journal of Wildlife Management: 75:1267-1278.

Bergeron, C. M., Hopkins, W. A.Bodinof, C. M., Budischak, S. A., Wada, H. and Unrine, J. M., 2011Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny. Science of the Total Environment: 409:4746-4752.

DuRant, S.E, Hopkins, W.A., and Hepp, G.R. 2011. Embryonic developmental patterns and energy expenditure are affected by incubation temperature in wood duck (Aix sponsa). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84:451-457.

Bergeron, C.M., Hopkins, W.A., Todd, B.D., Hepner, M.J., and Unrine, J.M. 2011. Interactive effects of maternal and dietary mercury exposure have latent and lethal consequences for amphibian larvae. Environmental Science and Technology 45:3781-3787.

Hopkins, B.C, DuRant S.E., Hepp, G.R., and W.A. Hopkins. 2011. Incubation temperature influences locomotor performance in young wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology 315:274-279.

Todd, B.T., Bergeron, C.M., Hepner, M.J., Burke, J.N., Hopkins, W.A. 2011. Does maternal exposure to an environmental stressor affect offspring response to predators? Oecologia 166:283-290.

Willson, J.D. and Hopkins, W.A. 2011. Prey morphology constrains the feeding ecology of an aquatic generalist predator. Ecology 92:744-754.


Burke, J.N., Bergeron, C.M., Todd, B.D., and Hopkins, W.A2010. Effects of mercury on behavior and performance of northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata). Environmental Pollution 158: 3546-3551.

Wada, H., Yates, D.E., Evers, D.C., Taylor, R.J, and Hopkins, W.A. 2010. Tissue mercury concentrations and adrenocortical repsonses of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near a contaminated river. Ecotoxicology 19: 1277-1284.

Hopkins, W.A., and Rowe, C.L., 2010. Interdisciplinary and hierarchical approaches for studying the effects of metals and metalloids on amphibians. In Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles, 2nd edition, D. Sparling, G. Linder, C.A. Bishop (eds). SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp 325-336.

Young, T., Adams, W., Besser, J., Finley, K., Hopkins, W.A., Jolley, D., McNaughton, E., Presser, T., Shaw, P., Unrine, J. 2010. An Introduction to Selenium. In Ecotoxicology of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment, P. Chapman (ed). SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp 7-45.

Janz, D.M., Brooks, M.L., Chapman, P.M., DeForest, D.K., Gilron, G., Hoff, D., Hopkins, W.A., McIntyre, D.O., Mebane, C.A., Palace, V.P., Skorupa, J.P., Wayland, M. 2010. Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms. In Ecotoxicology of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment, P. Chapman (ed). SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp 141-231.

Martin, L.B., Hopkins, W.A., Mydlarz, L.D., and Rohr, J.R. 2010. The effects of anthropogenic global changes on immune functions and disease resistance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1195: 129–148.

Homyack, J.A., Haas, C.A., and Hopkins, W.A. 2010. Influence of temperature and body mass on standard metabolic rate of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). Journal of Thermal Biology 35: 143-146.

Bergeron, C.M., Bodinof, C.M., Unrine, J.M., and Hopkins, W.A. 2010. Mercury accumulation along a contamination gradient and nondestructive indices of exposure in amphibians. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(4): 980-988.

Bergeron, C.M., Bodinof, C.M., Unrine, J.M., and Hopkins, W.A. 2010. Bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of mercury and selenium in amphibians. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(4): 989-997.

DuRant, S.E., Hepp, G., Moore, I.T., and Hopkins, W.A. 2010. Slight differences in incubation temperature affect early growth and stress endocrinology of wood duck (Aix sponsa) ducklings. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 45-51.


Moore, I.T. and Hopkins, W.A. 2009. Interactions and trade-offs among physiological determinants of performance and reproductive success. Integrative and Comparative Biology 49: 441-451.

Loeffler-Peltier G., Wright, M., Meyer, J.L., and Hopkins W.A. 2009. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 72: 1384-1391.

Wada, H., Cristol, D.A., McNabb, F.M.A., and Hopkins, W.A. 2009. Suppressed adrenocortical responses and triiodothyronine levels in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings near a Hg-contaminated river. Environmental Science and Technology 43:6031-6038.

Orlofske, S.A. and Hopkins, W.A. 2009. Energetics of metamorphic climax in the Pickerel Frog (Rana palustris). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 154:191-196.

Orlofske, S.A., Grayson, K.L., and Hopkins, W.A. 2009. The Effects of Fluorescent Tracking Powder on Oxygen Consumption in Salamanders using Either Cutaneous or Bimodal Respiration. Copeia 2009(3):623-627.

Orlofske, S.A., Belden, L.K., and Hopkins, W.A. 2009. Moderate Echinostoma trivolvis infection has no effects on physiology and fitness-related traits of larval pickerel frogs (Rana palustris). Journal of Parasitology. 95:787-792.

Budischak S.A., Belden, L.K., and Hopkins W.A. 2009. Relative toxicity of malathion to trematode-infected and noninfected Rana palustris tadpoles. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 56:123-128.

Rowe, C.L., Heyes, A., and Hopkins W.A. 2009. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: Results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding. Aquatic Toxicology 91:179-186.


Budischak, S.A., Belden, L.K., and Hopkins, W.A., 2008. The effects of malathion on embryonic development and latent susceptibility to trematode parasites in ranid tadpoles. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27:2496-2500.

Fletcher, D.E., Hopkins, W.A., Fernandez-Delgado,C., Standora, M. M., Baionno, J. A., Arribas, C., and Saldana, T., 2008. Geckos as indicators of urban pollution. Pp. 225-238. In Urban Herpetology, J. Mitchell, R. Jung-Brown, B. Bartholomew (eds). SSAR Publishers, Salt Lake City, Utah.

DuRant, S.E. and Hopkins, W.A. 2008. Amphibian predation on larval mosquitos. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86:1159-1164.

Loeffler-Peltier G., Meyer, J.L., Jagoe, C.H., and Hopkins W.A. 2008. Using trace element concentrations in Corbicula fluminea to identify potential sources of contamination in an urban river. Environmental Pollution 154(2): 283-290.

DuRant S.E., Hopkins, W.A., Talent, L.G., and Romero, L.M. 2008. Effect of exogenous corticosterone on respiration in a reptile. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 156: 126-133.

Holem, R.R., Hopkins, W. A., and Talent, L.G. 2008. Effect of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Environmental Pollution 152: 92-98.


Hopkins, W.A. 2007. Amphibians as models for studying environmental change. Journal of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research 48(3):270-277.

Unrine J.M., Jackson, B.P., and Hopkins, W.A. 2007. Selenomethionine biotransformation and incorporation into proteins along a simulated terrestrial food chain. Environmental Science and Technology 41:3601-3606.

Unrine, J.M., Hopkins, W. A., Romanek, C.S., and Jackson B.P. 2007. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in omnivorous amphibian larvae: Implications for amphibian health and contaminant transport. Environmental Pollution 149: 182-192.

DuRant S.E., Hopkins, W.A., and Talent, L.G. 2007. Energy acquisition and allocation in an ectothermic predator exposed to a common environmental stressor. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 145:442-448.

Bergeron, C.M., Husak, J.F., Unrine, J.M., Romanek, C.S., and Hopkins, W.A. 2007. Influence of feeding ecology on blood mercury concentrations in four species of turtles. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(8): 1733-1741.

Kuzmick, D.M., Mitchelmore, C.L., Hopkins, W.A., and C.L. Rowe. 2007. Effects of coal combustion residues on survival, antioxidant potential, and genotoxicity resulting from full-lifecycle exposure of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio Holthius). Science of the Total Environment 373:420-430.

Peterson, J.D., Wood, M.B., Hopkins, W.A., Unrine, J.M., and Mendonca, M.T. 2007. Prevalence of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in American Bullfrog and Southern Leopard Frog larvae from wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(3):450-460.

DuRant S.E., Hopkins, W.A., and Talent L.G. 2007. Impaired terrestrial and arboreal locomotor performance in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) after exposure to an AChE-inhibiting pesticide. Environmental Pollution 149: 18-24.

Hopkins, W.A., Hopkins L.B., Unrine, J.M., Snodgrass, J.W., and Elliot, J. 2007. Mercury concentrations in tissues of osprey from the Carolinas, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(6):1819-1829.


Fort, D.J., Rogers, R.L, Thomas, J.H., Hopkins, W.A., and Schlekat, C. 2006. Comparative deelopmental toxicity of nickel to Gastrophryne carolinensis, Bufo terrestris, and Xenopus laevis. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 51:703-710.

Fletcher, D.E., Hopkins, W.A., Saldana, T., Baionno, J.A., Arribas, C., Standora, M.M., Fernandez-Delgado, C. 2006. Geckos as Indicators of Mining pollution. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(9):2432-2445.

Roe, J.H., Hopkins, W.A., Durant, S.E., and Unrine, J.M. 2006. Effects of competition and coal combustion wastes on recruitment and life history characteristics of salamanders in temporary wetlands. Aquatic Toxicology 79:176-184.

Unrine J.M., Jackson, B.P., Hopkins, W.A., and Romanek, C.S. 2006. Isolation and partial characterization of proteins involved in maternal transfer of selenium in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(7): 1864-1867.

Hopkins, W.A., DuRant, S.E., Staub, B.P., Rowe, C.L., and Jackson, B.P. 2006. Reproduction, embryonic development, and maternal transfer of contaminants in an amphibian Gastrophryne carolinensis. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(5):661-666.

Scholz, N.L. and Hopkins, W.A. 2006. The ecotoxicology of anticholinesterase pesticides: Data gaps and research challenges. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(5): 1185-1186.

Holem, R.R, Hopkins, W.A., and Talent, L.G. 2006. Effect of acute exposure to malathion and lead on sprint performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 51:111-116.

Hopkins, W.A. and Winne, C.T. 2006. Influence of body size on swimming performance of four species of neonatal natricine snakes acutely exposed to a cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 25(5): 1208-1213.

Hecker, M., Murphy, M.B., Giesy, J.P., and Hopkins, W.A. 2006. Induction of cytochrome P4501A in African brown house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus) primary hepatocytes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(2):496-502.

Hopkins, W.A. 2006. Use of tissue residues in reptile ecotoxicology: A call for integration and experimentalism. In New Perspectives: Toxicology and the Environment, Volume 3: Reptile Toxicology. Gardner, S., Oberdorster, E. (eds). Taylor and Francis Publishers, London. pp 35-62.


Roe, J.H., Hopkins, W.A., and Talent, L.G. 2005. Effects of body mass, feeding, and circadian cycles on metabolism in the lizard Sceloporus occidentalis. Journal of Herpetology 39(4):595-603.

Sever, D.M. and Hopkins, W.A. 2005. Renal sexual segment of the ground skink, Scincella laternlis (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae). Journal of Morphology 266:26-59.

Grayson, K.L., Cook, L.W., Todd, M.J., Pierce, D., Hopkins, W.A., Gatten, R.E. Jr., Dorcas, M.E. 2005. Effects of prey type on specific dynamic action, growth, and mass conversion efficiencies in the horned frog, Ceratophrys cranwelli. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology 141:298-304.

Snodgrass, J.W., Hopkins, W.A., Jackson, B.P., Baionno, J.A., and Broughton, J. 2005. Influence of larval period on responses of overwintering green frog (Rana clamitans) larvae exposed to contaminated sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(6):1508-1514.

Punshon, T., Jackson, B.P., Lanzirotti, A., Hopkins, W.A., Bertsch, P.M., and Burger, J. 2005. Application of synchrotron x-ray microbeam spectroscopy to the determination of metal distribution and speciation in biological tissues. Spectroscopy Letters 38:343-363.

Metts, B.S., Hopkins, W.A., and Nestor, J.P. 2005. Interaction of an insecticide with larval density in pond-breeding salamanders (Ambystoma). Freshwater Biology 50:685-696.

Roe, J.H., Hopkins, W.A. and Jackson, B.P. 2005. Species- and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes. Environmental Pollution 136:353-363.

Hopkins, W.A., Staub, B.P., Baionno, J.A., Jackson, B.P., and Talent, L.G. 2005. Transfer of selenium from prey to predators in a simulated terrestrial food chain. Environmental Pollution 134:447-456.

Hopkins, W.A., Snodgrass, J.W., Baionno, J.A. Roe, J.H., Staub, B.P., and Jackson, B.P. 2005. Functional relationships among selenium concentrations in the diet, target tissues, and nondestructive tissue samples of two species of snakes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(2):344-351.

Hopkins, W.A., Winne, C.T., and DuRant, S.E. 2005. Differential swimming performance of two Natricine snakes exposed to a cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide. Environmental Pollution 133:531-540.

Jackson, B.P., Hopkins, W.A., Unrine, J.M., Baionno, J.A., and Punshon, T. 2005. Selenium speciation in amphibian larvae developing in a coal fly ash settling basin. In Plasma source mass spectrometry, current trends and future developments. Holland, J.G. and Bandura D.R. (eds). The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. pp 225-234.


Roe, J.H., Hopkins, W.A., Snodgrass, J.W., and Congdon, J.D. 2004. The influence of circadian rhythms on pre- and post-prandial metabolism in the snake Lamprophis fuliginosus. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology, Part A 139:159-168.

Unrine, J.M., Jagoe, C.H., Hopkins, W.A., and Brant, H.A. 2004. Adverse effects of ecologically relevant dietary mercury exposure in southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala) larvae. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(12):2964-2970.

Roe, J.H., Hopkins, W.A., Baionno, J.A., Staub, B.P., Rowe, C.L., and Jackson, B.P. 2004. Maternal transfer of selenium in Alligator mississippiensis nesting downstream from a coal burning power plant. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23: 1969-1972.

Sever, D.M., and Hopkins, W.A. 2004. Oviductal sperm storage in the ground skink Scincella laterale Holbrook (Reptilia: Scincidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology 301A:599-611.

Hopkins W.A., Staub, B.P., Baionno, J.A., Jackson, B.P., Roe, J.H., and Ford, N.B. 2004. Trophic and maternal transfer of selenium in brown house snakes (Lamprophis fuliginosus). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 58:285-293.

Hopkins, W.A., Staub, B.P., Snodgrass, J.W., Taylor, B.E., DeBiase, A.E., Roe, J.H., Jackson, B.P., and Congdon, J.D. 2004. Responses of benthic fish exposed to contaminants in outdoor microcosm�examining the ecological relevance of previous laboratory toxicity test. Aquatic Toxicology 68:1-12.

Snodgrass, J.W., Hopkins, W.A., Broughton, J., Gwinn, D., Baionno, J.A., and Burger, J. 2004. Species-specific responses of developing anurans to coal combustion wastes. Aquatic Toxicology 66:171-182.

Staub, B.P., Hopkins, W.A., Novak, J., and Congdon, J.D. 2004. Respiratory and reproductive characteristics of Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting a coal ash settling basin. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 46:96-101.

Dorcas, M.E., Hopkins, W.A., and Roe, J.H2004. Effects of body mass and temperature on standard metabolic rate in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). Copeia 1:145-151.

Hopkins, W.A., Roe, J.H., Philippi, T.E., and Congdon, J.D. 2004. Standard and digestive metabolism in the banded water snake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 137:141-149.

Unrine, J.M., Jagoe, C.H., Hopkins, W.A., and Brant, H.A. 2004. Adverse effects of ecologically realistic dietary mercury exposure in larvae of the southern leopard frog, Rana sphenocephala. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant. Chapter 84.


Litzgus, J.D. and Hopkins, W.A. 2003. Effect of temperature on metabolic rate of the mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum). Journal of Thermal Biology 28:595-600.

Snodgrass, J.W., Hopkins, W.A., and Roe, J.H. 2003. Relationships among developmental stage, metamorphic timing and concentrations of elements in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 22(7):1597-1604.

Bryan, L., Hopkins W.A., Baionno, J.A., and Jackson, B.P. 2003. Maternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal Fly Ash Basins. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 45:273-277.

Jackson, B.P., Hopkins, W.A., and Baionno, J.A. 2003. Laser Ablation-ICP-MS analysis of dissected tissue: a conservation-minded approach to assessing contaminant exposure. Environmental Science and Technology 37:2511-2515.

Hopkins, W.A., Snodgrass, J.W., Staub, B.P., Jackson, B.P., and Congdon, J.D. 2003. Altered swimming performance of benthic fish (Erimyzon sucetta) exposed to contaminated sediments. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 44(3):383-389.

Hopkins, W.A., Tatara, C.P., Brant, H.A., and Jagoe, C.H. 2003. Relationships between mercury body concentrations, standard metabolic rate, and body mass in eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) from three experimental populations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(3):586-590.

Ganser, L.R., Hopkins, W.A., O’Neil, L., Hasse, S., Roe, J.H., and Sever, D.M. 2003. Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site. Journal of Herpetology 37(1):219-226.

Rowe, C.L., Hopkins, W.A., and Bridges, C. 2003. Physiological ecology of amphibians in relation to susceptibility to natural and anthropogenic factors. In Amphibian decline: An integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects. Linder, G., Krest, S., Sparling, D. (eds). SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. pp 9-58.

Bridges, C., Rowe, C.L., and Hopkins, W.A. 2003. Amphibian conservation genetics. In Amphibian decline: An integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects. Linder, G., Krest, S., Sparling, D. (eds). SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. pp 59-72.

Rowe, C.L. and Hopkins, W.A. 2003. Anthropogenic activites producing sink habitats for amphibians in the local landscape: A case study of lethal and sublethal effects of coal combustion residues in the aquatic environment. In Amphibian decline: An integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects. Linder, G., Krest, S., Sparling, D. (eds). SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. pp 271-282.

Jackson, B.P., Seaman, J. C., and Hopkins, W.A. 2003. Arsenic and selenium speciation in a fly ash basin system. In Chemistry of Trace Elements in Fly Ash. Sajwan, K.S., Alva, A.K., Keefer, R.F. (eds). Kluwer, Amsterdam. pp 203-218.


Rowe, C.L., Hopkins, W.A., and Congdon, J.D. 2002. Ecotoxicological implications of aquatic disposal of coal combustion residues in the United States: a review. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment 80:207-276.

Jackson, B.P., Shaw-Allen, P., Hopkins, W.A., and Bertsch, P.M. 2002. Trace element speciation in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from a fly ash settling basin by liquid chromatography-ICP-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 374: 203-211.

Hopkins, W.A., Roe, J.H., Snodgrass, J.W., Staub, B.P., Jackson, B.P., and Congdon, J.D. 2002. Effects of chronic dietary exposure to trace elements on banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata). Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 21 (5):906-913.

Hopkins, W.A., Snodgrass, J.W., Roe, J.H., Staub, B.P., Jackson, B.P., and Congdon, J.D. 2002. Effects of food ration on survival and sublethal responses of lake chubsuckers (Erimyzon sucetta) exposed to coal combustion wastes. Aquatic Toxicology 57(3):191-202.


Rowe, C.L., Hopkins, W.A., and Congdon, J.D. 2001. Integrating Individual-based Indices of Contaminant Effects: How Multiple Sublethal Effects May Ultimately Reduce Amphibian Recruitment from a Contaminated Breeding Site. The Scientific World 1:703-712.

Rowe, C.L., Hopkins, W.A., Zehnder, C., and Congdon, J.D. 2001. Metabolic costs incurred by crayfish (Procambarus acutus) in a trace element-polluted habitat: further evidence of similar responses among diverse taxonomic groups. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 129:275-283.

Hopkins, W.A., Roe, J.H., Snodgrass, J.W., Jackson, B.P., Kling, D.E., Rowe, C.L., and Congdon, J.D. 2001. Nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in squamate reptiles. Environmental Pollution 115:1-7.

Congdon, J.D., Dunham, A.E., Hopkins, W.A., Rowe, C.L., and Hinton, T.G. 2001. Resource allocation-based life histories: a conceptual basis for studies of ecological toxicology. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20(8):1698-1703.

Rowe, C.L., HopkinsW.A., and Coffman, V.R. 2001. Failed recruitment of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in a trace element-contaminated breeding habitat: direct and indirect effects that may lead to a local population sink. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 40(3): 399-405.


Hopkins, W.A. 2000. Reptile toxicology: challenges and opportunities on the last frontier of vertebrate ecotoxicology. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 19(10):2391-2393.

Hopkins, W.A., Snodgrass, J.W., Roe, J.H., Jackson, B.P., Gariboldi, J.C., and Congdon, J.D. 2000. Detrimental effects associated with trace element uptake in lake chubsuckers (Erimyzon sucetta) exposed to polluted sediments. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39:193-199.

Ryan, T. and Hopkins, W.A. 2000. Interaction of sex and size and the standard metabolic rate of paedomorphic Ambystoma talpoideum: Size does matter. Copeia 2000:808-812.

Hopkins, W.A., Congdon, J.D., and Ray, J.K. 2000. Incidence and impact of axial malformations in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) developing in sites polluted by a coal burning power plant. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry 19(4):862-868.

Before 2000

Hopkins, W.A., Rowe, C.L., and Congdon, J.D. 1999. Elevated trace element concentrations and standard metabolic rate in banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata) exposed to coal combustion wastes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(6):1258-1263.

Hopkins, W.A., Mendonca, M.T., and Congdon, J.D. 1999. Responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis in an amphibian (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion wastes. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology C 122 (2):191-196.

Hopkins, W.A., Mendonca, M.T., Rowe, C.L., and Congdon, J.D. 1998. Elevated trace element concentrations in southern toads, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal combustion wastes. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 35:325-329.

Hopkins, W.A., Mendonca, M.T., and Congdon, J.D. 1997. Increased circulating levels of testosterone and corticosterone in southern toads, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal combustion wastes. General & Comparative Endocrinology 108:237-246.

Mendonca, M.T. and Hopkins, W.A. 1997. Effects of arousal from hibernation and plasma androgen levels on mating behavior in the male big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. Physiological Zoology 70 (5):556-562.

Buttenhoff, P.A. and Hopkins, W.A. 1996. Predation on scorpions by Anolis carolinensis. Herpetological Review 27:19.